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zara营销策略分析ppt

发布时间:2022-10-19 18:11:44

⑴ ZARA在原材料采购中采用哪些策略和技术

品牌原材料采购中采用的策略技术:
1、ZARA采取与客户共同创造价值的文化策略。
2、采购与生产周期短。
3、根据市场需求合理把控产品数量。
4、生产周期短。Zara从设计到店铺上架,14天即可完成。
5、产品配送速度快。
6、销售与信息反馈快。

⑵ ZARA是如何一步步发展起来的

Zara创于1975年,是西班牙Inditex集团旗下的品牌,有超过两千多家的服装连锁店,设计优异、价格较为低廉,深受全球时尚青年的喜爱。Inditex是全球排名第一的服装零售集团,旗下有8个品牌,Zara是其中最有名的,其销售额占总销售额的70%,它开创了快时尚的模式,是服装行业的标杆。

Zara成功的原因是以顾客为导向、高效的管理、迅速灵活的生产、独特的营销价格策略,这让它成为了服装行业的一个神话。

⑶ 研究案例,分析研究zara能够战胜竞争对手主要依靠的是什么战略

一个比较例子、Zara和H&M的营销策略对比[摘 要]西班牙的ZARA和瑞典的H&M,目前为国际上两大成功的服装零专售品牌,两家属公司的成功得益于其独特营销策略的运用。本文旨在总结归纳两家公司营销策略上的异同点。为中国零售企业提取一些可借鉴的经验。

⑷ zara的营销策略体现在哪些方面

我觉得这个定位不是随便说说的,一定要根据zara多年来的大数据做参考的,是扩大还是继续走细分要有可以秉承的战略方向作为条件。

⑸ zara的经营策略分析

zara的不打广告、不打折独特营销策略是怎么一回事呢?我来为你介绍一番。

zara的经营策略分析

1.差异化市场定位策略

ZARA品牌定位能成功区隔市场,其关键在于能贴近消费者需求以及充分整合区域资源。ZARA是“中低价位却拥有中高级质量”的国际性流行服饰品牌,以中高消费者为主要客户族群,让低价服装也可以像高价服装一样入时好看,以满足消费者追求流行不需要花大钱的心理需求。

2.全球运筹营运策略

ZARA运用西班牙、葡萄牙廉价的生产资源以及邻近欧洲的地缘优势,大幅降低产品制造与运输成本、提升货品上架时效并掌握JIT的及时流行趋势,是其能提供消费者所喜爱的物美价廉的产品的关键原因。

3.创新营销策略

ZARA以“欧洲制造”为主要营销策略,成功切入消费者内心对“欧洲制造”等同于高级流行服饰品牌的意向,其以市场需求驱动之营销策略是成功打入市场的关键之一。

4.供应链系统

实际上至关重要的环节是ZARA的灵敏供应链系统,大大提高了ZARA的前导时间。(前导时间是从设计到把成衣摆在柜台上出售的时间)中国服装业一般为6~9个月,国际名牌一般可到120天,而ZARA最厉害时最短只有7天,一般为12天。这是具有决定意义的12天。ZARA之灵敏供应链所展现出来的韵律,使得有“世界工厂”之称的中国相形见绌。

一些国际服装品牌巨头明知ZARA厉害,就是学不来,模仿不了。为什么?

ZARA一年中大约推出120000种时装,而每一款时装的量一般不大。即使是畅销款式,ZARA也只供应有限的数量,常常在一家专卖店中一个款式只有两件,卖完了也不补货。一如邮票的限量发行提升了集邮品的价值,ZARA通过这种“制造短缺”的方式,培养了一大批忠实的追随者。“多款式、小批量”, ZARA实现了经济规模的突破。

一般分析ZARA成功的原因大致是:顾客导向;垂直一体化;高效的组织管理;强调生产的速度和灵活性;不做广告不打折的独特营销价格策略等。

⑹ ZARA的由来

摘要 名字由来

⑺ zara的市场营销策略的英文文献

这些都是国外网站上的,没有中文翻译的,看不懂的话试试翻译器,查查字典什么的,我要是给你翻译怕误导你。

Zara: Cool Clothes Now, Not Later

Ask any urban European female under the age of 30 and chances are she has shopped at Zara, the clothier whose inexpensive but stylish offerings have attracted a cult following. Zara also sells men’s fashions, again aimed at the stylish and youthful.

Mathieu Soto, a college tennis player from France with dark eyes and devastating good looks, was asked to compare Zara to The Gap, the U.S. - based clothing giant with a major presence in Europe. His response: “I don’t know. I’ve never shopped at The Gap.”

Most U.S. young alts have never shopped at Zara, but that seems likely to change in the near future. In the past five years Zara has grown from 179 stores mostly in Spain to 450 stores in 29 countries including the United States and Canada. Zara now has stores in New York, New Jersey, Miami, and Toronto—with more on the way.

While Zara is unlikely to displace The Gap in the U.S. market, they are certain to offer U.S. consumers an option previously unavailable to them. They have a sound if unusual marketing strategy in which logistics plays an important role. Logistics also plays an important role in Zara’s growth plans, notably its expansion into the U.S. market.

Zara’s Marketing Strategy

Zara’s marketing strategy focuses on proct variety, speed-to-market, and store location. It is also notable for what it excludes. Zara does not advertise in the traditional sense. If you want to find out what’s currently available at the Zara stores you have two options: go to the web site or go to the store. Zara puts 10,000 different items on the store shelves in a single year. It can take a new style from concept to store shelf in 10-14 days in an instry where nine months is the norm. In its primary European markets, Zara locates its stores close together. Visitors comment that Zara in Madrid is like Starbucks in a major U.S. city—you see another store on every street corner.

Zara’s Toronto store is located just north of the center of downtown in a major shopping district dense with malls and lined with stand-alone stores and giant office buildings. The potential for intense competition is clear.

“These office buildings are full of the people we want as customers. We want them to stop in at lunch or after work. We want to see them often, so we have to change what we have on the shelves,” said Zara’s Toronto store manager. “They could shop in a lot of other stores, so we have to make it worth their time to come here.”

This also helps explain why the company does not advertise. If a Zara customer wants to know what Zara has, he or she must go to the store. The stock changes often, with most items staying on the shelf for only a month, so the customer often finds something new and appealing. By the same token, if the customer finds nothing to buy this visit, the store’s regular customers know that tomorrow or next week—sometime soon—new goods will be on Zara’s shelves. That makes it worth another visit.

Zara relies heavily on store employees for market information. If a customer looks at a sweater and comments, “That would look really nice with a cowl collar,” an employee can relay that information to Spain where managers decide whether or not to proce the suggested item. If they decide to make it, they can put it on the shelf in Toronto in two weeks or less, partly because they ship by air. Ocean shipping would add at least another ten days to the time it takes to get the proct in front of the customer, undermining the speed-to-market and proct variety strategy.

The Role of Logistics
Putting the variety of goods on the shelves in Toronto and other North American stores requires an unusual, though not unique, logistics strategy for the fashion instry. Zara air expresses goods from its single distribution center in Spain, usually in small quantities. In the 1970’s, The Limited used a similar strategy to support its test marketing, air expressing small quantities of new styles from Asia to U.S. stores. In Zara’s strategy, however, the speedy shipments are part of the core strategy, not just test marketing. Zara also ships frequently, allowing lower inventories while serving its multinational market from a single distribution center in Spain.

“We receive shipments o n Tuesday and Saturday, which means that we have different items in the store at least twice a week. While each shipment replenishes items that sell well, each also includes new items. That’s why our customers come in often,” the Toronto store manager said. “We might get ten of one item and five of another. We’re constantly testing.”

The density of Zara’s store locations in Europe helps achieve logistics efficiencies. They can fill trucks for frequent shipment in markets close to proction and ship larger quantities by air to more distant stores. Zara keeps transportation costs low on the supply side, since most of the proction takes place in Spain. This contrasts radically to most large fashion manufacturers, which rely on low cost manufacturing in Asia and South America, but then pay higher inventory costs and move goods to market more slowly.

The air express strategy also allows Zara to maintain a multinational market presence with only one distribution center. They trade higher transportation costs for lower warehousing and inventory costs. Add to this the idea that fast transportation
supports the proct-innovation strategy that is the heart of Zara’s marketing, and the importance of logistics in Zara’s marketing strategy is clear.

The Results and the Future

Zara’s parent company, Inditex, reached $2.7 billion in 2001 revenue. This made it the fastest growing clothing manufacturer in the world. Zara, Inditex’s fastest growing division, turns its inventory twice as fast as major competitors, with an inventory-to-sales of 7% compared to an instry average of 14%. Their profitability in European operations (15%) is fifty percent higher than that of its major competitors. Zara manufactures 80% of its clothing in Europe, with most of the remaining 20% is sourced in Mexico.

While top managers are understandably closed-mouthed about their plans, Zara seems ideally positioned to penetrate the U.S. market in a major way. With some manufacturing already in Mexico, they could easily open a second distribution center aimed directly at the U.S. market. This would make their youth-oriented styles widely available in the world’s most lucrative market.

Question 1 – Zara’s Business Model and Competitive Analysis

Zara, the most profitable brand of Inditex SA, the Spanish clothing retail group, opened its first store in 1975 in La Coruña, Spain; a city which eventually became the central headquarters for Zara’s global operations. Since then they have expanded operations into 45 countries with 531 stores located in the most important shopping districts of more than 400 cities in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa. Throughout this expansion Zara has remained focused on its core fashion philosophy that creativity and quality design together with a rapid response to market demands will yield profitable results. In order to realized these results Zara developed a business model that incorporated the following three goals for operations: develop a system the requires short lead times, decrease quantities proced to decrease inventory risk, and increase the number of available styles and/or choice. These goals helped to formulate a unique value proposition: to combine moderate prices with the ability to offer new clothing styles faster than its competitors. These three goals helped to shape Zara’s current business model.

Zara’s Business Model
Zara’s business model can be broken down into three basic components: concept, capabilities, and value drivers. Zara’s fundamental concept is to maintain design, proction, and distribution processes that will enable Zara to respond quickly to shifts in consumer demands. José María Castellano, CEO of Inditex stated that "the fashion world is in constant flux and is driven not by supply but by customer demand. We need to give consumers what they want, and if I go to South America or Asia to make clothes, I simply can't move fast enough." This highlights the importance of this quick response time to Zara’s operations.

Capabilities of Zara, or the required resources needed to exploit the opportunities and execute this conceptual strategy, are numerous for Zara. Zara maintains tight control over their proction processes keeping design and manufacturing in-house or with some strategic partnerships located nearby Headquarters. Currently, Zara maintains 80% of its proction processes in Europe, 50% in Spain which is very close to La Coruña headquarters. They have strategic agreements with local manufacturers that ensure timely delivery and service. Through these strategic partnerships and the benefits brought by this proximity of manufacturing and operational processes, Zara maintains the flexibility necessary to design and proce over 12000 new items annually. This capability allows Zara to achieve their strategy of expedited response to consumer demand.

Value drivers for Zara are both tangible and intangible in the benefits that are returned to all stakeholders. Tangibly, Inditex, the parent company of Zara, has 11.02% net margin on operations and their market capitalization (Equity – market value) is

⑻ 要一个好的营销策略

Zara和H&M的营销策略对比

[摘 要]西班牙的ZARA和瑞典的H&M,目前为国际上两大成功的服装零售品牌,两家公司的成功得益于其独特营销策略的运用。本文旨在总结归纳两家公司营销策略上的异同点。为中国零售企业提取一些可借鉴的经验。[关健词]ZARA、H&M、营销策略

(一)引言

西班牙知名服装品牌ZARA属于在西班牙排名第一、垒球排名第三的服装零售商Inditex公司旗下的品牌,该公司在全球拥有近2000多家分店,其中ZARA是Inditex公司9个品牌中最著名的旗舰品牌,被认为是欧洲最具研究价值的品牌。ZARA已在全球57个国家和地区拥有分店,并且每年都以70家左右的速度增长。尽管ZARA连锁店只占Inditex公司所有分店数的二分之一,但其销售额却占到了公司总销售额的75%左右。
瑞典H&M公司,全称Hennes&Mamitz,是由其创始人ErlingPersson在1947年创立于瑞典的服装零售连锁企业。目前公司在欧洲和北美的29个国家和地区拥有其零售店,每年销售货品超过5,5亿件,已成为欧洲最大的服装零售连锁企业之一。
这两大服装零售业的巨头,能在欧洲及国际市场上取得成功,归功于他们独特的营销策略。本文旨在比较这两家公司营销策略的异同。为中国服装零售业提取一些可借鉴的经验。

(二) ZARA与H&M的营销策略比较

1)产品策略
ZARA和H&M采用的都是“少量、多款”的产品策略,两者都打破了传统服装业界季节的限定,在同一季节内也会不断推出新颖款式供消费者选择。
ZARA的“少量、多款”产品策略的实现,依靠的是公司对时尚信息和消费者反馈信息的快速采集与共享,而这主要缘于以下两个系统的构建。
*庞大的设计团队的构建:ZARA拥有一个两百多人组成的,非常强大的新产品开发团队,该团队包括三类人员:设计师、市场专家和生产经理。其中约有一百多人为设计师,平均年龄不到30周岁。年轻的新产品开发团队对时尚有着敏感准确的理解,他们从米兰、巴黎时装秀取得灵感,识别流行的时尚趋势,设计与这些趋势相匹配的各种款式。ZARA只需几天的时间就可以完成对歌星的装束或顶级服装大师创意作品的模仿。从流行趋势的识别到将迎合流行趋势的新款时装摆到店内。ZARA只需两周的时间,而传统生产方式下这个周期要长达到4-12个月。
*信息共享体系的构建:ZARA的每个门店,都安装着彼此独立的信息系统。每天晚上,位于西班牙西北部拉科鲁尼的ZARA总部,会和每个门店交换大量原始数据,数据细致到每款产品卖了几单、尺码、颜色、数量、卖出时间、支付方式、折扣信息、价格调整等。之后,各部门会根据需要分解数据,以对各地市场做出判断。而这些所获取的信息又会及时反馈到ZARA的设计总部。设计师们根据各地的流行情报信息来进行设计流行趋势的识别。而每个门店经理手上的PDA为其沟通的有效工具,可以通过PDA向西班牙总部发出订单,能在PDA上获取总部给他们的建议订货量,还可以利用PDA与总部产品经理进行直接沟通。
H&M为实现其“少量、多款”的产品策略同样也在以下方面做出了努力。
*消费者需求信息获取体系的建立:为了更准确地满足消费者真实需求,公司创造产品采取了一种“推一拉”的方式,即除了把公司认为消费者想要的产品“推”给消费者外,更要用消费者想要的商品来“拉”住消费者。公司设计团队不定期地在东京、巴黎、纽约及其他主要的对尚之都旅行,从T台时尚到街边流行到处捕捉时尚灵感、设计出具有吸引力的产品。
*信息共享体系的建立:H&M总部和22个生产办事处的所有部门间的沟通基于一个名为ICT(Information and Communicat ion Tech-nologies)平台,在H&M的总部。设计与采购部门协同工作,每个设计理念都有一支设计师、采购员、助理、打版师、财务总监及部门经理组成的团队,这样可以在设计初期便着手在价格、市场反馈和流行时尚之间取得平衡,而这些人员的日常信息沟通借助的就是ICT平台。ICT为H&M建立了一个环型的信息反馈机制,销售、库存、采购计划和生产能力的信息变得完全透明,使多品种,更新频率较高的产品的管理成为可能。
2)价格策略
两家公司的在价格上都采取低价策略。ZARA的目标消费群是收入较高并有着较高学历的年青人,主要为25-35岁的顾客层,H&M也将目标消费群定为15-30岁的年青人,这一类的购买群体具备对时尚的高度敏感度并具备一定消费能力,但并不具备经常消费高档奢侈品牌的能力,两家公司频繁更新的时尚低价产品正好可以满足这类人群的需求。但是,因两家公司采取了不同的供应链策略,所以虽同为低价,却仍然存在着明显的差异。
ZARA为确保其“少量、多款、平价”的商品以“极速”方式送达客户手中,将大部分生产放在欧洲。在西班牙,ZARA拥有22家工厂,其50%的产品通过自己的工厂生产,50%的产品由400家供应商完成。这些供应商有70%位于欧洲,其他则分布在亚洲。这样的地理位置是为了保持其供应链的响应速度,但却在一定程度上提高了其物流成本。为确保商品传递的迅速,ZARA还坚持以空运方式进行商品的运输,也使其成本进一步提升。
与ZARA不同。H&M在供应链的构建上更看重成本的因素,公司产品的制造环节被完全外包给分布在亚、欧、非洲及南美的约700家制造商(大部分在盂加拉、中国、土耳其)。公司根据其销售产品的差异,采用了双供应链策略:①管控欧洲生产的快速反应供应链,大约一半的前沿时尚产品在接近欧洲市场的欧洲国家(主要是土耳其)制造,此类商品需要较短的交货周期(最短3-4周),以便及时根据销售反馈做出调整;②管控亚洲生产的高教供应链,另一半的基本款产品时尚风险较小,交货周期可以相对延长(最长6个月),为保证低价和质量则安排在低成本的亚洲国家(主要是中国、孟加拉等国)制造。
通过以上供应链的调整和安排,使H&M在价格上可以采取比ZARA更低一层的策略。据统计,H&M的时装价位比ZARA约低出30%~50%。
在价格折扣方面,两家公司也都采用少折扣策略。因两家公司的产品都是“少量、多款”,消费者如不在第一时间购买,就存在着再也买不到的风险,所以往往无法等到季末或岁末打折就会迅速购买。正是利用了消费者的这种心理。两家公司的货物上柜后几乎都能在短时间内销售一空,只会剩下少量不受欢迎的产品留在季末或岁末打折。在这方面ZARA的成绩尤为突出,ZARA的打折商品数量平均约占它所有产品总数量的18%左右,约只有竞争者的一半水平。以H&M经营状况最好的2001年为例ZARA平均打折商品占7%,H&M则为13%。
3)销售渠道策略
为将商品以迅速、平价的方式送达消费者手中。两家公司又都不约而同地采用“直营”策略。ZARA和H&M作为服装品牌的同时,也是零售连锁店的品牌,他们在世界各地拥有大量的连锁店铺,而为达到商品传递迅速、价格低廉的经营目标,两家公司的连锁店铺基本由总部进行直营,货物由总部集中进行调配。
尽管如此,H&M并未放弃在销售渠道的拓展上的创新,到目前为止其销售渠道虽仍以直营店为主,但其目录销售、在线销售的业绩却在持续增长。1980年,H&M收购了RoweHs公司,开始在瑞典、芬兰、挪威和丹麦进行目录销售;1998年,H&M在瑞典开设了网上商店,随后在芬兰、挪威、丹麦都开通了在线销售。在取得初步成功的基础上,2006年秋天,荷兰成为其在北欧地区以外首个开设在线销售的国家。2007年秋季,德国和奥地利预计也将启动在线销售。
与H&M的创新不同,ZARA始终坚持其“直营”策略,并表示在短期内不会改变。因为他们坚持认为让顾客进人店铺,直接接触商品,体验商品才是最好的经营方式。
两家公司也都致力于在各国铺设直营店铺。ZARA是于1975年,由一位普通的铁路工人的儿子——阿曼奇奥·奥特加·乔开创的一家小店铺。发展至今,ZARA已在全球57个国家和地区拥有分店,并且每年都以70家左右的速度增长。ZARA零售终端网络现已覆盖到五大洲,ZARA位于欧洲的零售店所占比例最高,并以德国、法国、英国等欧洲国家的中产阶级为其消费主体,在H&M店铺较多的北欧地区。店铺数量相对较少,例如其在挪威只有首都奥斯路1家店铺,芬兰也就只有包括首都赫尔辛基在内的两个城市的3家店铺,而H&M在挪威的46城市、芬兰的26个城市都有店铺分布。
H&M于1947年在瑞典创立。1964年开始开拓国际市场,如今已在全球28个国家和地区拥有分店。1964及1967年H&M首先进入邻国挪威和丹麦,这两个国家与瑞典在有相似的文化、经济水平、价值观念、气候条件,这些相似性对于没有什么国际化经验,刚开始跨国经营的H&M公司来说有助于减少经营风险。此后公司基本也采用由近及远的接触扩散方式,先在接近原有市场的国家开展经营活动,当经营活动达到一定规模再建立生产与服务机构。H&M在全球的店铺覆盖国家没有ZARA广泛。几乎没有涉足ZARA积极开拓的南美市场,也正体现出H&M的这种谨慎经营,稳步扩张态度。虽然H&M当前的主营区域仍然是欧洲,但2007年3月在香港首家店铺的开张、4月上海两家店铺的开张、以及其中文网站()的建立都表明了其在亚洲,尤其是中国市场蓄势待发的姿态。 4)促销策略
与以上营销策略中,两家公司具有的部分相似点不同,在促销方面,两家公司采取了截然不同的策略。
ZARA几乎不作广告宣传,它的广告成本仅占其销售额的0-0.3%,而行业平均水平则是3.5%,广告费用的节省几乎成为它另一方面的利润来源。
ZARA的品牌宣传主要靠以下两个方面来实现:一是其产品结构自身的特点。以时尚、现代且丰富的款式结构配合合适的价格吸引消费者。并以快捷的更新速度抓住消费者的购买心理——“一旦看中而不购买,很快就会没有货”;二是依靠其优越的地理位置,和时装摆放与展示方式:①地理位置选择方面:ZARA一般都将店铺开在高档商业区和繁华的交通枢纽。尽管在这些地方开店的成本费用很高。但ZARA总是在店里留出宽敞的空间,为顾客营造一种宽松愉快的购物环境,2000年ZARA店的平均面积为910平方米,到2003年底,ZARA在垒球连锁店的总面积达68.6万平方米,平均每个分店的面积为1096平方米。②橱窗展示方面:ZARA聘请多名时装设计师从米兰、巴黎时装秀取得设计灵感,利用高档品牌提前发布时尚信息的传统(如3月发布秋冬季时装、9月发布春夏季时装。发布时间和真正的销售季节中间通常有6个月的时间差),使得时尚杂志还在预告当季潮流时,ZARA橱窗已在展示这些内容。③店内布置方面:ZARA店里表服一般不是按货品种类堆放,而是上表、裤子、皮包、配饰搭配放在一起。让顾客很容易一动心买走一整套东西。优越的地理位置、颇具特色的橱窗设计和独具一格的店内展示都使得ZARA不用打广告也具有非凡吸引力。
H&M的品牌促销与ZAlLA走的是完全不同的路线。将廉价大众品牌与时装大师联系起来的方式可以说是他们在时装界的首创。2004年和2005年H&M聘请了被称为“时装界恺撒大帝”的名设计师卡尔·拉格菲尔德(Karl Lagerfeld)和前披头士乐队成员Paul MeCartney之女,著名设计师斯泰拉·麦卡特尼(SteUa MeCartney)为品牌设计服装。当2004年11月,与卡尔·拉格菲尔德(KarI L,Lagerfeld)的合作开始时,当月就创下了营业额飙升24%的佳绩。2006年推出了荷兰服装设计师维克多(VIKTOR)和罗尔夫(ROLF)设计的新款服装系列,在斯德哥尔摩以及欧洲大城市引起了疯狂抢购热潮。2007年更是推出了M byMadonna系列,利用国际巨星麦当娜的设计系列配合中国香港与上海的新店铺开幕。

(三)小结

营销策略并无定式,并非将成功经验照搬过来,中国的企业就一定能获得成功,但ZARA、H&M的运营方式值得我们的企业去思考,通过对两家营销策略的比较分析,不难看出,是否拥有“快而准”的市场应对方法,将成为衡量服饰品牌核心竞争能力的标尺。准确地了解各分店销售情况和库存状况,做到准确配货,准确地进行销售预测与分析,企业领导及时准确地做出营销决策是这两家公司成功的关键。而在“快而准”的背后则离不开适时有效的信息化管理系统和高效物流系统的支持。中国服装企业在提高产品质量、档次的基础上,需尽快提高企业快速反应的能力,适时地完成市场预测、市场营销和管理方式的革命。改变原先落后的管理思维和业务处理模式,从而真正规范企业流程,实现利润的增长。

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