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奥迪营销策略英文版

发布时间:2021-04-08 10:57:25

① 急!求关于市场营销(最好是关于营销策略的)的英文文献2000字左右的,最好带翻译,在线等!

大家知道,企业管理包括生产管理、营销管理和财务管理等多个方面,而财务管理是企业整个管理体系的核心,企业的财务管理目标即是企业追求的目标。可见,只有以财务管理为中心,协调运作管理体系的各个方面,才能有效地强化企业管理,促进企业发展。从全国来说,民营企业数量众多、分布广泛、特点各异,再加上受宏观经济环境化和体制影响,民营企业在加强财务管理方面遇到了一定的阻力,例如:政策的“歧视”使民营企业和大型企业不能公平竞争,地方政府、行业管理部门的干预,使民营企业的财务管理目标短期化,再主要的就是民营企业财务管理受业主的影响过大等一些主观因素的存在,导致财务管理的重要性被忽视。所以,其财务管理中存在的问题也多种多样,我认为,目前普遍存在的问题和原因主要有:
(一)融资困难,周转资金不足,使财务管理成断源之湖。
目前,我国民营企业初步建立了较为独立、渠道多元的融资体系,但是,融资难、担保难,仍然是制约民营企业发展的最突出的问题,主要问题是:第一,负债过多,融资成本高,风险大,造成民营企业信用等级低,资信相对较差。第二,大多数民营企业是非大型企业,有些银行受传统观念和行政干预的影响,对其贷款不够热心。第三,中介机构不健全,缺乏专门为民营企业贷款服务的金融中介机构和贷款担保机构。
分析其主要原因表现在两个方面:一是金融业对民营企业的信贷支持不够。我国金融系统从设置到服务项目,大都是以大企业为服务对象,民营企业的信贷服务往往被忽视。由于贷款难,生产经营过程中所需资金不足,极大制约了民营企业的发展。有的民营企业,虽存在暂时困难,但银行一旦支持就能起死回生;二是民营企业的融资渠道单一,难以适应市场需求的变化。由于有的民营企业,在既得不到银行的贷款支持,又不具有自我融资或向社会公开融资能力,无形中,加强企业财务管理也就成了一句空话,财务管理也就成了断源之湖。
(二)财务控制薄弱,缺乏科学性,使财务管理举步艰难。
大部分民营企业存在财务控制环节薄弱,而且对加强财务管理方面不够重视,没有从真正意义上理解财务管理在企业中的地位。主要问题有:一是资金管理不严,财务控制薄弱,造成资金闲置或不足。二是应收账款周转缓慢,造成资金回收困难。三是存货控制薄弱,造成资金呆滞。四是重钱轻物,资产流失严重。
分析其原因主要是:一是有些民营企业认为现金越多越好,致使大量现金未参加周转,有的是资金缺少计划安排,过量购置不动产,而使企业无法应付经营急需的资金,陷入财务困境。二是没有建立严格的赊销政策,缺乏有力的摧收措施,应收款不能兑现或形成呆账。三是很多民营企业月末存货占用资金往往超过其营业额的两倍以上,造成资金呆滞周转失灵。四是不少民营企业管理者,对原材料、半成品、固定资产等管理不到位,出了问题无人追究,资产浪费严重。分析以上原因,最重要的是因为企业上层领导财务管理观念落后,缺乏科学性,在思想上没有真正理解财务管理对做大做强一个企业所起到的作用,没有将财务管理纳入企业管理的有效机制中,缺乏现代财务管理观念,使财务管理失去了它在企业管理中应有的地位和作用,举步艰难。
(三)管理模式疆化,管理观念陈旧,使财务管理暗然失色。
由于长期以来在思想上受到旧的财务制度的约束,企业管理人员的观念比较滞后。主要问题有:一是企业的投资者同时就是经营者。二是企业管理者的管理能力和管理素质差,管理思想落后。
分析其原因主要是:民营企业典型的管理模式是所有权和经营权高度统一,企业的投资者同时就是经营者,这种模式势必给企业的财务管理带来负面影响,民营企业中相当一部分属于个体私营性质,在这些企业中,企业领导者集权现象严重,并且对财务管理的理论方法缺乏应有的认识和研究,致使其职责不分,越权行事,造成财务管理混乱,财务监核不严,会计人员独舟难行,想规范管理很难。大部分企业没有或无法建立内部审计部门,即使有,也很难保证内部审计的独立性。另外,有些企业没有将财务管理纳入企业管理的有效机制中,缺乏现代财务管理观念,多数民营企业家尚未建立起诸如时间价值、风险价值、边际成本、机会成本等科学管理的概念,由于管理模式疆化,管理观念陈旧,使财务管理暗然失色,失去了它在企业管理中应有的地位和作用。
First, the privately operated enterprise the question and the reasonanalysis which exists in the financial control As everybody knows, business management including proctionmanagement, marketing management and financial control and so on manyaspects, but the financial control is the enterprise entire managementsystem core, enterprise's financial control goal is a goal which theenterprise pursues. Obviously, only has take the financial control asthe center, the coordination operates management system each aspect,can effectively strengthen the business management, the promotionenterprise develops.Said from the nation that, the privately operated enterprise quantitymultitudinous, distributed is widespread, the characteristicrespectively differently, in addition receives the macroscopiceconomic environment and the system influence, the privately operatedenterprise was strengthening the financial control aspect to meet thecertain resistance, for example: The policy "the discrimination"causes the privately operated enterprise and the major instry cannotthe fair competition, the local authority, the profession controlsection's intervention, causes the privately operated enterprise thefinancial control goal short-term, again is main is the privatelyoperated enterprise financial control owner's influence oversized andso on some subjective factors existences, causes the financial controlthe importance to neglect. Therefore, in its financial control existsquestion also many and varied, I believed, at present the universalexistence question and the reason mainly have: .
(1) financing difficulty, the revolving fund is insufficient, causeslake of the financial control Cheng Duanyuan. At present, the our country privately operated enterprise initiallyestablished has been independent, the channel many Yuan financingsystem, but, financed difficultly, to guarantee difficultly, still wasthe most prominent question which the restriction privately operatedenterprise developed, the main question was: First, is in debtexcessively many, financing cost high, risk big, creates the privatelyoperated enterprise credit rank low, helps the letter relatively to beworse. Second, the majority privately operated enterprise right andwrong major instry, some banks the traditional ideas and theadministrative intervention influence, insufficiently are warm-heartedto its loan. Third, the facilitating agency is not perfect, lacksspecially the financial facilitating agency and the loan guaranteeorganization which serves for the privately operated enterprise loan. Analyzes its main reason to display in two aspects: One is the financeinstry is insufficient to the privately operated enterprise's creditaid. Our country finance system from establishes to the serviceproject, mostly is take the big enterprise as the service object, theprivately operated enterprise's credit service is often neglected.Because the loan is difficult, in the proction management processneeds the fund to be insufficient, enormously has restricted theprivately operated enterprise's development. Some privately operatedenterprises, although exists temporarily difficultly, but the bankonce supports can bring back to life; Two is the privately operatedenterprise's financing channel is unitary, adapts the market demandchange with difficulty. As a result of some privately operatedenterprises, in both cannot obtain the bank the loan support, and doesnot have self- financing or to the social public financing ability,imperceptibly, strengthened the enterprise financial control also tobecome an empty talk, the financial control has also become mediateslake of the source.
(2) financial control is weak, lacks the scientific nature, causes thefinancial control to take a step difficultly. The majority of privately operated enterprises have the financialcontrol link to be weak, moreover to strengthens the financial controlaspect insufficiently to take, has not understood the financialcontrol from the true significance in enterprise's status. The mainquestion includes: One is the fund management is lax, financialcontrol weak, creates the fund to leave unused or to be insufficient.Two is the receivable account funds turnover is slow, causes the fundrecycling difficulty. Three, the inventory control is weak, createsthe fund delay. Four is re- Qian Qingwu, the property drainsseriously. Analyzes its reason mainly is: One is some privately operatedenterprises thought cash more the better, causes the massive cashesnot to participate in the turnover, some are the fund lacks the planarrangement, excessive purchase real estate, but causes the enterpriseto be unable to deal with the management urgently needed fund, fallsinto the financial difficult position. Two is does not have theestablishment strict selling on credit policy, lacks powerfullydestroys receives the measure, should receive money cannot cash orform the ll account. Three is very many privately operatedenterprises end of the month the goods in stock takes the fund oftento surpass its turnover above two times, creates the fund delayturnover to malfunction. Four is many privately operated enterprisessuperintendents, to management and so on raw material, half-finishedproct, fixed asset did not arrive, leaves question nobody toinvestigate, the property waste was serious. Above analyzes thereason, most importantly because the enterprise upper formationleadership financial control idea is backward, lacks the scientificnature, the untrue understanding financial control to does in thethought greatly makes the role which the strong enterprise plays, hasnot bought into line with the financial control the businessmanagement in the effective mechanism, lacks the modern financialcontrol idea, caused the financial control to lose it the status andthe function which should have in the business management, took a stepdifficultly.
3) management pattern boundary, manages the idea obsoletely, causesthe financial control to be dark however 失色. Because receives the old financial system since long ago in thethought the restraint, business management personnel's idea comparisonlag. The main question includes: One is at the same time enterprise'sinvestor is the operator. Two is the enterprise superintendent'smanagement ability and the management quality bad, manages the thoughtto be backward. Analyzes its reason mainly is: The privately operated enterprise modelmanagement pattern is the property rights and the operating righthighly unifies, at the same time enterprise's investors is theoperator, this kind of pattern inevitably will give the enterprise thefinancial control to bring the negative influence, in the privatelyoperated enterprise quite a part will belong to the indivial tooperate privately the nature, in these enterprises, enterprise leadercentralization phenomenon serious, and will lack the understanding andthe research to the financial control theory method which will besupposed to have, will cause its responsibility not to divide, exceedsauthority to handle affairs, creates the financial control chaotic,the finance will supervise the nucleus not to be lax, accountant thepersonnel alone boat difficult line, to think the standard managementwill be very difficult. The majority of enterprises not or are unableto establish the interior auditing department, even if has, also isvery difficult to guarantee the internal audit the independence.Moreover, some enterprises have not bought into line with thefinancial control the business management in the effective mechanism,lacks the modern financial control idea, the most privateenterpreneurs not yet establish such as scientific management the andso on time value, risk value, marginal cost, opportunity cost concept,as a result of the management pattern boundary, manages the ideaobsoletely, causes the financial control to be dark however 失色,has lost it the status and the function which should have in thebusiness management.

② 急求一篇品牌营销策略外文参考文献

绿色食品营销策略一、绿色食品营销环境分析(一)绿色食品营销的国际环境随着世界绿色浪潮的兴起,绿色食品(国外为有机食品)营销的国际市场环境已经形成,初步具备了营销的组织基础及法规、市场观念和社会需求环境条件。 .组织基础。绿色组织的建立最初始于美国。 年代,美国成立了数百个青少年环保组织,发起了保护地球生态平衡的“地球日”活动。此后,各国绿色组织纷纷成立,英国、德国、日本等国还成立了以保护生态环境为宗皆的社团组织---绿党。 年日本成立了“再生运动市民工会”, 年在法国成立了“有机农业运动国际联盟”,现已有近 个围家参加,遍及世界各大洲,成为国际性的绿色组织。国际性绿色组织的出现,对绿色食品的国际营销起了巨大的推动作用。 .法规环境。在国际性绿色组织建立的同时,西方发达国家已从行政、立法、经济等方面形成了一套行之有效的环保规范。目前,世界上已签署的与环保有关的法律、国际性公约、协定或协议多达 多项。同时,国际标准化组织的IS 、IS (即国际贸易商品在技术、安全、卫生、环保等方面的质量保证体系)系列标淮和 年 月起实施的IS (即国际环境标准制度)等协约,协议上限制甚至明文禁止了许多产品的国际贸房。乌拉圭回合贸易谈判签署的最后文件中,不仅包括制成品,也包括农产品等纳人了世界贸易组织体制,呈现出明显的“绿色印记”。西方发达国家都已建立了环境标志制度,环境标志已成为出口产品进入这些国家市场的通行证。至此,有别于传统非关税的国际贸易技术壁垒——“绿色壁垒”已形成。 .社会实践基础。近年来,以农产品生产过剩和农业补贴负担过重为契机,欧美国家纷纷进行农业转型。美国从 年开始实施“低投人持续型”农业政策。在农业生产中减少农药、化肥的使用;欧共体从 年代后期开始推行新农业政策,改变以往大量投人化肥、农药的粗放型农业经营政策;日本也正积极推动“环境安全型”新农业政策。其宗旨是保护农业生态环境,满足人们日益增加的对有机食品的需求。新农业政策的实施无疑为绿色食品营销奠定了社会实践基础。 .市场观念环境:随着国际上环境保护意识的增强,人们的思维方式、价值观念乃至消费心理和消费行为都发生了变化,人们对不污染环境的产业及产品的需求日益增长,甚至有些团体提出了“绿色消费主义”,为国际市场带来了绿色消费热。在国际消费市场上,绿色产品标志是取得消费者信任有竞争优势的主要条件。据美国的调查显示,有 %的美国人表示一个公司的环境信誉会影响其购买决定;欧共体进行的调查表明, %的荷兰人和 %的德国人在超市购物时会考虑环境污染的因素,英国的购物者大约有半数会根据对环境和健康是否有利来选择商品;在日本对家庭主妇的调查时, . %的消费者对绿色食品(有机农产品)感兴趣,觉得有安全性的占 . %。绿色、有机食品市场消费观念已基本形成。 .社会需求环境。近年来发达国家对有机食品的需求迅速增长,并以 %的年递增率增加。预计再过十年,其消费量将是现在的 倍,这种需求大有超过其本国生产和供应能力的趋势。目前,西欧是最大的有机食品需求市场,消费量最多的是奥地利、瑞士、英国和德国等,其供求矛盾已日趋明显,而其国内生产能力有限,在相当程度上只有依靠进口。由此可见,有机食品供求矛盾的出现,逐渐成为企业一项主动的生产和营销策略。生产者、经营者更明确地意识到开发有机食品可增加其利润和竞争力,将成为农产品国际商战中攻守皆宜的利器,成为影响农产品国际市场供求关系的重要因素,成为 世纪国际市场上一项更重要的促销手段,而获得了绿色标志的有机食品也就掌握了进入国际市场的通行证。(二)绿色食品营销的国内环境。随着国际有机食品营销环境的变化,国内人均生活水平从温饱型向小康型转变, 年国家提出发展绿色食品,并在十年的发展进程中,形成了国内组织、法规、技术、社会实践及市场需求基础,使绿色食品营销的国内市扬环境基本具备。 .组织基础。农业部成立了“绿色食品发展中心”和“中国绿色食品总公司”,并由该中心注册绿色食品标志,负责推行和管理此标志,同时制定了绿色食品标志管理法及申请使用绿标的审核程序,并在 个省(市)建立了相应机构负责绿色食品的监督管理等,为国内绿色食品营销奠定了组织法律基础; .法规、技术基础。我们已经制定并颁布了有关绿色食品方面的法规及其规章制度,制定了绿色食品的产品或产品原料的生态环境标准,绿色食品种植业、畜禽养殖、水产养殖及加工的生产技术操作规程,以及最终产品的质量卫生标准等,形成了绿色食品营销的技术基础; .社会实践及市场需求基础。截止目前,我国已开发了包括粮油、蔬菜、果品、饮料、畜禽蛋奶、水产酒类等 大类 多种的绿色食品,建成了千余家绿色食品企业和 多个绿色食品生产示范基地,以及百余个生态农业示范县的建设,形成了绿色食品营销的社会实践。同时,随着人们生活水平的提高,在我国东部沿海等发达的大中城市,人们对自然、无污染的食品的渴望程度相当高,已经形成了一定的消费群体,这也就是绿色食品的市场需求基础。二、绿色食品营销战略绿色营销是指企业在整个营销过程中充分体现环保意识和社会意识,向消费者提供科学的、无污染的生产和销售方式,引导并满足消费者的有利于环境保护及身心健康的消费需求。企业选择并实施绿色营销战略,在其经营活动中采用现代营销模式,追求经济效益、社会效益和环境效益的统一。因此,绿色营销作为实现农业可持续发展的有效途径,无疑成为现代企业,尤其是绿色食品生产企业市场开拓的必然选择。针对绿色食品营销存在的主要问题,即:绿色食品市场开发相对滞后、绿色食品营销网络尚未形成,绿色食品企业广告宜传力度不够,假冒伪劣绿色食品扰乱市场,绿色食品的科研和技术推广体系较为薄弱,我国环境污染形势严峻与绿色食品产品对环境要求的严格性之间存在矛盾等,应采取如下 P策略。(一)制定绿色营销战略计划,实行大市场营销策略。(PLAN)实行绿色营销战略管理计划是关系到企业兴衰成败的关键性措施。绿色食品生产企业只有制定明确的绿色营销战略,才能正确实现绿色食品的市场营销管理。大市场营销是针对企业进入具有贸易障碍的市场而设计的,企业实行大市场营销时,在策略上要协调地运用经济心理、社会、政治等手段,特别是权利和公共关系,以取得国际目标市场的各有关方面的合作与支持。首先要根据绿色消费趋势,发现市场机会,确定绿色食品营销的战略任务;其次,根据绿色食品标准,确定绿色食品的业务组合计划,对绿色食品市场进行市场细分后再选择目标市场,并进行产品开发和研制,选择恰当的发展战略,制定包括清洁生产在内的战略规划;第三,根据绿色消费的要求制定绿色营销策略计划。(二)运用绿色广告战略,宣传绿色消费(PROMOTE)绿色消费的需求和欲望已进入中国消费市场,运用绿色营销观念,指导企业的市场营销实践,已成为必然趋势,其中重要的一环是要推行绿色广告。绿色广告是宣传绿色消费的锐利武器,是站在维护人类生存利益的基点上推销产品的广告,它的功能在于强化和提升人们的环保意识,使消费者将消费和个人生存危机及人类生存危机联系起来,使消费者认识到错误的消费影响到人类的生存,并最终落实到个体身上,这样消费者就会选择有利于个人健康和人类生态平衡的包括绿色食品在内的绿色产品。运用绿色广告就可以迎合现代消费者的绿色消费心理,对绿色食品工程宣传,容易引起消费者的共鸣,从而达到促销的目的。目前在中国,绿色广告作为一种市场营销战略还未引起广大绿色食品生产者、经营者的普遍重视,因此,绿色食品生产、经营企业应该利用各种广告媒体,推行和运用绿色广告,引发绿色食品消费。(三)选择恰当的绿色销售渠道,努力拓展绿色食品销售市场(PLACE)这是拓展市场,提高绿色食品市场占有率,扩大绿色食品销售量,成功实施绿色营销的关键。绿色食品和一般的农产品不同,应建立自己的专业流通体系和流通渠道,这一流通体系由生产基地、供货中心、销售渠道三部分组成。只有发挥这三部分相辅相成作用,才能使绿色食品流通体系得以完善。实行绿色渠道和绿色促销策略,采用无污染的运输工具,合理设置供应配送中心和配送环节,选择环保信誉好的中间商,并逐渐培养自己的供销商,以维护产品的绿色形象。对推销人员实行绿色培训,在广告、公共关系等促销手段中,强调绿色环保特征,把产品、企业与环保有机联系起来。加大各零售商的竞争力度,完善绿色食品企业分销系统合理运行市场营销的真实结果是把产品推向市场,争得消费者的认可。目前,绿色食品的消费群在大中城市,它的直销窗口就是各绿色食品专柜、专卖店。绿色食品企业为了争得市场占有份额,不但要在产品质量、包装上下功夫,更重要地是要充分考察各零售商店的地理位置,管理水平,经济实力和效益。只有具备有关规定的条件,才能建立销售网点或投放自己生产的产品,这样就为各零售商增强了市场竞争意识;同时,通过运行,企业才能检验自己的产品定位、分销系统定位是否合理。因此,各绿色食品企业只有运用良好的营销手段,才能使自己的产品走向千家万户。同时,各零售商店、配送中心的合理运行又为各绿色食品企业增强了产品上柜的竞争意识。所以市场营销、各大城市零售商的设置及分销系统合理布局为绿色食品企业提供了很好的运作形式。 .在大中城市建立绿色食品物流中心大中城市一般具有优越的地理位置,建立绿色食品物流中心,既可以作为一个销售窗口,用于展示本公司的绿色食品:又可以作为一个信息窗口,沟通生产企业与市场的联系,架起联产促销的桥梁。 .建立绿色食品连锁商店绿色食品销售网点可以借鉴国内外连锁商业的成功经验,结合各地具体情况,实现严格的“八个统一管理”,即要统一装修格式、统一服务规范、统一进货、统一库存调配、统一商号、统一价格、统一核算、统一管理。这样可以对企业员工强化“绿色服务”意识的训练,树立为消费者提供绿色服务的企业精神,形成与“绿色消费”相适应的企业文化。在建立连锁商店的同时,还要成立连锁总店的配送中心,组织联购分销,既可以因为大批量直接送货享受价格优惠,增强与其他同类产品的竞争力,又能够缩短销售渠道,减少和降低销售成本。 .借助社会渠道,建立一批绿色食品专柜或专营店选择经销尚时要把重点放在与本企业有相同的环境保护意识,有良好的绿色形象并能真正合作的中间商上。商店一般要选择繁华地段,居民文化层次比较高及客流量比较大的地区。 .直销对于一些易腐烂变质或丧失鲜活性的绿色食品,如蔬菜、水果等要尽置缩短流通渠道,可以采取直销方式,这样,既可以避免产品腐烂变质,又可以减少环境污染。现在有些大中城市出现配送包月菜的形式,可以借鉴。通过直销绿色食品蔬菜,既减少了流通环节,避免了污染,又降低价格,扩大市场销售量。 、灵活运用其他绿色营销策略一是灵活运用促销策略,要把环境支出计入成本。利用人们回归自然、崇尚自然的心理采用高价促销策略;二是运用产品包装策略,包装相当于食品的门面,它是产品呈现给消费者的第一形象。实行绿色营销策略,应对产品实行绿色包装,世界上发达国家确定了包装要符合“ R+ D”的原则,则低消耗、开发新绿色材料、再利用、再循环和可降解。目前,国内食品的绿色包装还处于薄弱环节,“ R+ D”原则没有得到很好体现,包装的主要材料还是塑料,这和绿色产品所宣扬的环保观念是相悖的。在新型的环保材料没有出现之前,纸是最好的包装材料。可选择纸料等可降解材料、无毒性材料进行包装或采用包装材料简单化、方便化策略;三是实施名牌战略,经营绿色食品的企业要努力提高和保持绿色食品质量和特性,创造名牌,并按整体产品概念,除实现产品的功能外,要注重产品的附加功能和延伸功能,以加速名牌的形成。四是灵活利用公共关系宣传,如举绿色食品论坛、举以“环境保护”、“绿色健康生活”为主题的促销宣传活动,塑造企业形象,打造企业品牌。(四)、实施绿色价格策略(PRICE)绿色食品的价格允许比一般食品高,是因为企业在生产中承担了一部分改善环境的成本。因此,在绿色食品定价上可以实行一定的加价率,企业在生产中要严格把好质量关。 .对一些绿色食品实行新产品定价策略许多绿色食品可以作为新产品看待,而有的绿色食品本身就是新产品,为此这些产品可以采用新产品定价策略。 .满意定价策略根据市场出现的相同或相似的绿色食品的价格水平定价,所谓随行就市定价策略。 .目标价格策略根据企业预期的利润收益,结合市扬对本绿色食品的需求量和绿色食品的成本费用,来确定产品的价格策略。 .心理定价策略很多情况下,绿色食品可以满足消费者的某种心理需求,如自然、安全或赶时尚等,这就为绿色食品进行心理定价提供了依据。品牌战略(BrandStratagem)用品牌战略开发市场在市场经济条件下,品牌就是价值,品牌是龙头企业发展壮大的一个关键因素,也是提高企业竞争力的主要手段。实践证明,只有企业走联营联合之路,打造一批能在国内、国外市场参与竞争的航空母舰,形成拳头产品,才能尽快的走进国际市场,才能有一定的竞争能力,才能实现企业利润的最大化。但在构造绿色食品品牌时,应注意把握以下三条原则:一是要坚持按市场竞争构造品牌的原则;二是要坚持用质量标准体系构造品牌的原则;三要坚持用产业化经营的方式构造品牌的原则。品牌不仅仅是企业创造出来的,而是通过消费者不断认知并长久忠诚形成的。品牌战略的重要在于创新市场机制,关注消费者的反应。着眼消费者,不断地培养消费者的品牌价值观,并依据企业的经营战略来进行各项策略的拟订,并有效地组合成一个整体,透过品牌传达齐一的品牌个性,不断的创新市场机制,来实现品牌持久的竞争优势,从而巩固市场的地位。 .紧紧盯住消费者来制订品牌战略。 .为好的产品制订科学系统的品牌发展战略。 .目标不仅是销售好的产品,而且创造好的品牌。 .给品牌注入生命和灵魂,不断地演绎品牌策略。 .建立信赖比获取市场占有率更重要。 .建立长期的关系比短期内增加利润更重要。 .建立整齐一致的品牌个性,并统一传播。 .现代企业的行销活动,必须透过品牌,保持统一形象。新经济时代是一个创新时代。无形资产决定企业价值,新经济在向企业展示其无穷魅力的同时,也对企业提出了更高的要求。因为你的竞争对手、你的用户不再局限于地区性的市场、商场,而是同在相互不谋面的全球性网络。用户对你认可还是否定都在瞬间完成,而起决定性作用的是品牌的美誉度。这些无形资产的经济价值要远大于其有形资产,其巨大的产权份量增强了企业发展的后劲,也是公司经济实力的体现。丰力公司目前的拳头产品是冷冻淡水产品和绿色果蔬,需要发挥产品特色,尽快打出品牌。整合食品销售网络食品企业的市场营销环境在不断变化,食品企业的销售网络也必须不断改变,才能把握新销售机会,提高销售网络的有效性。根据每个经销商的具体表现以及不同地区市场变化状况,食品企业要定期地分析现有的渠道是否能满足需求,是否需要开发新的渠道,或增加渠道中的个别经销商,乃至调整整个销售渠道等。食品企业在整合销售网络时,应按以下四个步骤循序而进:步骤一:明确销售渠道的目标 提高渗透率——如将现有的经销店由 家扩充为 家。 开辟新的销售渠道——食品企业开发出新的产品,或利用新的市场机会,开发新的销售渠道。 确定各销售渠道的销货比率组合——食品企业可依据各种销售渠道的获利状况、政策需要、竞争策略等,设定销货比率组合目标,如:百货公司 %,超级市场 %,量贩店 %,特殊销售渠道 %。 提高经销店的销售周转率——这是食品企业提高经营效率的重要目标。 确定物流成本服务质量目标——财务人员往往强调低物流成本,但是一味地降低物流成本而忽视客户满足度,也是市场营销所不能接受的,因此设定物流成本及服务质量目标也是销售渠道的一项重要目标,例如配送的速度是食品营销成功的重要因素,为了满足各户迅速配送的要求,增加运输费用也是必要的。 确定食品企业及经销商保有存货的目标。 确定不同销售渠道的投资报酬目标。 确定流通信息化的建立目标。步骤二:找出目前食品销售渠道的问题 食品业界使用的销售渠道。首先要了解业界所用的销售渠道情况,以做到“知已知彼”。包括以下三方面:( )业界所使用的销售渠道方式,如业界使用直营式,或重点地区直营其他地区经销,或独家代理,或选择性分销,或使用特殊的销售渠道等。( )评估地区的覆盖率,即评估业界在各地区的市场覆盖率。( )评估客户的实力,如各个销售点的人员数量及素质、地点、是否专卖、客户对企业的忠诚度等。 与本企业所使用的销售渠道的差异比较。对于主要竞争对手,企业要进行销售渠道差异分析,以了解本企业在业界中所处的地位。 .目前销售渠道中存在的问题:( )企业与经销商间的冲突。如厂家抱怨批发商销售的品牌太多没有重点推销本企业的产品、没有及时反馈市场信息等;而经销商则抱怨利润不高、价格混乱、厂家直接开设零售店等。( )经销商与经销商之间的冲突。如互相争夺客户、低价倾销、跨区销售等。( )要选择多少经销商。企业选择销售渠道的策略有四种:密集分销、选择性分销、独家代理、多重销售渠道,每种销售渠道都有它的特点,也都可能产生问题,所以企业必须了解目前存在的问题是什么。步骤三:提出创造性的解决问题策略解决食品销售渠道问题的第一步是企业应随时知道自己的客户(使用者及购买者)是谁?他们在哪里?何时会购买?为什么会购买?对客户了解清楚后,才能提出有效的策略,才能解决目前的困扰及开创新的机会,以实现销售渠道的目标。食品销售渠道中的问题及应对策略如下: 经销商对企业产品销售不重视。针对这一问题可采取:提供销售奖励法;协助经销商开展促销活动;对经销商进行销售知识培训,如进行商品陈列、销售技巧、店面管理、库存管理、订货系统等方面的培训。 食品销售渠道间的利益冲突。这是在所难免的,企业不能视而不见,必须通过有效的管理与控制手段,解决销售渠道间的冲突,否则,这种冲突会毁掉市场。 向前整合/向后整合策略。向前整合策略是指食品企业设立与本企业有关的销售点,全权掌握下游的销售渠道,如双汇集团准备在全国建立 家双汇产品专卖店,五粮液集团在全国设置的五粮液专卖店等;向后整合策略指厂家或经销商设立自己的物流中心、配送中心,提高整体的营运效率及能力。 竞争对策。竞争对手开辟了哪些新的渠道,实施了哪些新的食品销售策略,企业必须根据竞争对手的情况提出应对之策。 食品销售渠道信息化。销售渠道的一个重要功能就是信息功能,企业要通过销售渠道不断地收集和反馈市场信息。 开发新的食品销售渠道。这使企业能更接近特殊的细分市场客户,把握新的市场机会,拥有新的竞争优势,从而提高企业的市场占有率。 加强深度分销。以提高铺货率和提升在专营店的表现,减少通路冲突,增强竞争优势。步骤四:费用预估及评估。不同的食品销售渠道会产生不同的费用,而销售费用往往影响着企业的获利率及价格的竞争能力,食品销售渠道策略一旦制定,将会长期影响企业的发展。因此,企业必须从长期出发评估销售渠道策略。渠道需要沟通。经常的沟通是企业保持渠道顺畅的主要方式,也是企业了解和帮助分销商的重要途径。分销商衡量企业的一个主要标准是短期有利可图,长期可持续发展,这个标准就长期来说是要看企业在行业中的领先地位和发展情况,短期来说是要看经营利润。这种标准说道底是一种利益标准,所以有效的渠道沟通就是有关分销商利益的沟通。如何进行利益沟通,许多跨国公司如宝洁、联合利华常常采用一种沟通工具:ROI分析,即投资回报率分析。总之,根据产品系列和生产能力,绿色食品销售销售应走两个市场:国际市场和国内市场。国内市场开拓的首要任务是销售通路建设。绿色食品须保鲜、易变质,较宜采用短通路。以下是四种消费品销售通路,我的看法是:在本地区及中小城市应走(一)、(二),在密集型消费的大城市取(四),县城地区取(三)。销售通路图:(一)直销(二)网状销售(三)批发市场辐射(四)平台销售中小食品企业市场营销策略三准备夯实营销基础中小食品企业进行市场营销首先要做好以下三个方面的基础工作:做好产品包装设计对许多中小食品企业来说,包装表表形式跟不上市场变化,内外包装设计档次低,产品包装没有自身的特色等到毛病会让中闪电战商及消费者从视觉和心理上产生不信伤感。包装形式及内外包装同质量相一致甚至高出产品质量,对中小食品企业特别是质量较好或新上市的中小食品企业显得尤其重要。一方面,好的包装能够给人产品质量的信心;另一方面,好包装会给商家信心和良好的感觉;再则,好的包装能够产生企业生产成本高导致的价格高的效果,给产品以相应的价格空间。准备好宣传促销品许多中小食品企业由于各种原因,便宣传促销品要么准备不全,要么制作出的宣传促销品水平和档次低,给市场营销实操过程造成很多困难,从而打击了经销商和业务人员的信心。对食品企业来说,电视广告片、宣传、企业及产品宣传册至手提袋、POP吊旗及常规促销品如圆珠笔、打火机等都应当准备,并且这些宣传促销品应当同主品特点和产品包装相统一,保持较高的质量。保持产品的稳定性中小食品企业还应注意的一个问题是产品的稳定性,所谓产品的稳定性,一是指产品配方的稳定,对食品来说,就是产品口感和口味的稳定。产品的稳定性还指产品质量的稳定,任何产品质量问题,对市场、经销商和业务人员都是沉重的打击,所以企业必须保证产品质量尽量不出或少出质量事故。四种策略确保营销成功做好以上工作,企业进行主市场营销时就有一个比较良好的基础,关于具体的市场营销策略,应注意以下几方面:逐步推进的市场策略中小食品企业的实力不允许企业进行全国性市场营销,而只能采取“小心翼翼”逐步推进的市场拓展策略。中小食品在采取逐步推进的市场策略时,应注意以下几条原则: 、回避原则许多企业喜欢首先在城市或省份做出样板市场来,然后再向其它市场推进。这种做法,不应当该意追求。“墙内开花墙外香”及“外来和沿好念经”的事比比皆是,因此有时应回避本地市场,而根据产品特点、各地的消费习惯和对产品的接受容易程度来选择前期市场。对中小企业而言,市场开发最好先回避中心城市,而开发市场投入小、启动较为容易的地级城市,通过它们来包围中心城市,同时;辐射县能、级城市市场。 、“两手抓”原则所谓“两手抓”,即一手抓回款,五手建立根据地市场。尽可能多的回款,一方面可以保证企业的正常经营活动,另一文献可以保证企业员工的信心,同时,还可满足企业其它方面和层次的需要。 、重视市场时机中小食品企业应根据自身产品特点在适当的时间全力进行经销商开发,避免许多企业经常出现的在旺季或旺季之后才进行开发的情况。终端为先的通路策略资金并不充裕的中小食品企业,在进入一个新的市场后,终端的建设更加重要。因为新产品甚至高价位的新产品要通过批发市场直接较大量走货几乎是不可能的,只有通过终端的努力铺货、促销、宣传、并结合适当的其它工作,才能逐步提高品牌知名度,从而带动以批发市场为主的其它通路的产品销售。整合的产品宣传策略所谓整合宣传策略,一方面指要将广告、常规促销、其它促销、人员推销同铺货甚至公关活动相结合,充分利用它们各自的宣传、销售、引导等作用,做到互相促进、互相补充、互相提高;另一方面则是指宣传促销的立体化和规模效应。全面的厂商关系策略

③ 营销策略和营销战略英文有区别么还是都是marketing strategy,英语中怎么区分呀

管理学当中有 Marketing strategies 和 Marketing tactics 之分
说白了,strategy是目标,tactic是方法。
因为翻译不同,所以冒出来许多说回法,其实答根本就这两个

④ zara的市场营销策略的英文文献

这些都是国外网站上的,没有中文翻译的,看不懂的话试试翻译器,查查字典什么的,我要是给你翻译怕误导你。

Zara: Cool Clothes Now, Not Later

Ask any urban European female under the age of 30 and chances are she has shopped at Zara, the clothier whose inexpensive but stylish offerings have attracted a cult following. Zara also sells men’s fashions, again aimed at the stylish and youthful.

Mathieu Soto, a college tennis player from France with dark eyes and devastating good looks, was asked to compare Zara to The Gap, the U.S. - based clothing giant with a major presence in Europe. His response: “I don’t know. I’ve never shopped at The Gap.”

Most U.S. young alts have never shopped at Zara, but that seems likely to change in the near future. In the past five years Zara has grown from 179 stores mostly in Spain to 450 stores in 29 countries including the United States and Canada. Zara now has stores in New York, New Jersey, Miami, and Toronto—with more on the way.

While Zara is unlikely to displace The Gap in the U.S. market, they are certain to offer U.S. consumers an option previously unavailable to them. They have a sound if unusual marketing strategy in which logistics plays an important role. Logistics also plays an important role in Zara’s growth plans, notably its expansion into the U.S. market.

Zara’s Marketing Strategy

Zara’s marketing strategy focuses on proct variety, speed-to-market, and store location. It is also notable for what it excludes. Zara does not advertise in the traditional sense. If you want to find out what’s currently available at the Zara stores you have two options: go to the web site or go to the store. Zara puts 10,000 different items on the store shelves in a single year. It can take a new style from concept to store shelf in 10-14 days in an instry where nine months is the norm. In its primary European markets, Zara locates its stores close together. Visitors comment that Zara in Madrid is like Starbucks in a major U.S. city—you see another store on every street corner.

Zara’s Toronto store is located just north of the center of downtown in a major shopping district dense with malls and lined with stand-alone stores and giant office buildings. The potential for intense competition is clear.

“These office buildings are full of the people we want as customers. We want them to stop in at lunch or after work. We want to see them often, so we have to change what we have on the shelves,” said Zara’s Toronto store manager. “They could shop in a lot of other stores, so we have to make it worth their time to come here.”

This also helps explain why the company does not advertise. If a Zara customer wants to know what Zara has, he or she must go to the store. The stock changes often, with most items staying on the shelf for only a month, so the customer often finds something new and appealing. By the same token, if the customer finds nothing to buy this visit, the store’s regular customers know that tomorrow or next week—sometime soon—new goods will be on Zara’s shelves. That makes it worth another visit.

Zara relies heavily on store employees for market information. If a customer looks at a sweater and comments, “That would look really nice with a cowl collar,” an employee can relay that information to Spain where managers decide whether or not to proce the suggested item. If they decide to make it, they can put it on the shelf in Toronto in two weeks or less, partly because they ship by air. Ocean shipping would add at least another ten days to the time it takes to get the proct in front of the customer, undermining the speed-to-market and proct variety strategy.

The Role of Logistics
Putting the variety of goods on the shelves in Toronto and other North American stores requires an unusual, though not unique, logistics strategy for the fashion instry. Zara air expresses goods from its single distribution center in Spain, usually in small quantities. In the 1970’s, The Limited used a similar strategy to support its test marketing, air expressing small quantities of new styles from Asia to U.S. stores. In Zara’s strategy, however, the speedy shipments are part of the core strategy, not just test marketing. Zara also ships frequently, allowing lower inventories while serving its multinational market from a single distribution center in Spain.

“We receive shipments o n Tuesday and Saturday, which means that we have different items in the store at least twice a week. While each shipment replenishes items that sell well, each also includes new items. That’s why our customers come in often,” the Toronto store manager said. “We might get ten of one item and five of another. We’re constantly testing.”

The density of Zara’s store locations in Europe helps achieve logistics efficiencies. They can fill trucks for frequent shipment in markets close to proction and ship larger quantities by air to more distant stores. Zara keeps transportation costs low on the supply side, since most of the proction takes place in Spain. This contrasts radically to most large fashion manufacturers, which rely on low cost manufacturing in Asia and South America, but then pay higher inventory costs and move goods to market more slowly.

The air express strategy also allows Zara to maintain a multinational market presence with only one distribution center. They trade higher transportation costs for lower warehousing and inventory costs. Add to this the idea that fast transportation
supports the proct-innovation strategy that is the heart of Zara’s marketing, and the importance of logistics in Zara’s marketing strategy is clear.

The Results and the Future

Zara’s parent company, Inditex, reached $2.7 billion in 2001 revenue. This made it the fastest growing clothing manufacturer in the world. Zara, Inditex’s fastest growing division, turns its inventory twice as fast as major competitors, with an inventory-to-sales of 7% compared to an instry average of 14%. Their profitability in European operations (15%) is fifty percent higher than that of its major competitors. Zara manufactures 80% of its clothing in Europe, with most of the remaining 20% is sourced in Mexico.

While top managers are understandably closed-mouthed about their plans, Zara seems ideally positioned to penetrate the U.S. market in a major way. With some manufacturing already in Mexico, they could easily open a second distribution center aimed directly at the U.S. market. This would make their youth-oriented styles widely available in the world’s most lucrative market.

Question 1 – Zara’s Business Model and Competitive Analysis

Zara, the most profitable brand of Inditex SA, the Spanish clothing retail group, opened its first store in 1975 in La Coruña, Spain; a city which eventually became the central headquarters for Zara’s global operations. Since then they have expanded operations into 45 countries with 531 stores located in the most important shopping districts of more than 400 cities in Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa. Throughout this expansion Zara has remained focused on its core fashion philosophy that creativity and quality design together with a rapid response to market demands will yield profitable results. In order to realized these results Zara developed a business model that incorporated the following three goals for operations: develop a system the requires short lead times, decrease quantities proced to decrease inventory risk, and increase the number of available styles and/or choice. These goals helped to formulate a unique value proposition: to combine moderate prices with the ability to offer new clothing styles faster than its competitors. These three goals helped to shape Zara’s current business model.

Zara’s Business Model
Zara’s business model can be broken down into three basic components: concept, capabilities, and value drivers. Zara’s fundamental concept is to maintain design, proction, and distribution processes that will enable Zara to respond quickly to shifts in consumer demands. José María Castellano, CEO of Inditex stated that "the fashion world is in constant flux and is driven not by supply but by customer demand. We need to give consumers what they want, and if I go to South America or Asia to make clothes, I simply can't move fast enough." This highlights the importance of this quick response time to Zara’s operations.

Capabilities of Zara, or the required resources needed to exploit the opportunities and execute this conceptual strategy, are numerous for Zara. Zara maintains tight control over their proction processes keeping design and manufacturing in-house or with some strategic partnerships located nearby Headquarters. Currently, Zara maintains 80% of its proction processes in Europe, 50% in Spain which is very close to La Coruña headquarters. They have strategic agreements with local manufacturers that ensure timely delivery and service. Through these strategic partnerships and the benefits brought by this proximity of manufacturing and operational processes, Zara maintains the flexibility necessary to design and proce over 12000 new items annually. This capability allows Zara to achieve their strategy of expedited response to consumer demand.

Value drivers for Zara are both tangible and intangible in the benefits that are returned to all stakeholders. Tangibly, Inditex, the parent company of Zara, has 11.02% net margin on operations and their market capitalization (Equity – market value) is

⑤ 英文高手进!关于BMW的营销策略!

1.I don't think so, for known brand like BMW which covering almost all nations and regions of world and featuring for luxury and nobility, the promotion program should uniformed in terms of time, ways and things alike but not should have varied methods for different countries and regions accordingly.
2.BMW is very known, but the internet as a world wide web is surely more powerful than a single brand, thence make most of the internet should be part of the promotion program in way of mixing with other media thus increase its reputation and media coverage among people who still have no idea about it.

⑥ 求高手帮我下载万方数据库的一篇文章,关于汽车营销策略,外文文献,最好中英文都有,论文文献翻译部分。

查找外文文献建议您到Pubmed 、ProQuest 、ScienceDirect、wiley这些外文综合数据库中搜索关键词,然后查看跟您所选方向版较为接近的权文献再进行翻译。因为外文数据库中是没有中文对应翻译的。而且这样根据研究方向找出来的文献才能更符合您自身的要求,也更具有参考价值。如果有文献的题目我会帮您找找看

⑦ 急求一篇 》》》描述一个公司的营销策略英文300字。

Market strategies are the result of a meticulous market analysis. A market analysis forces the entrepreneur to become familiar with all aspects of the market so that the target market can be defined and the company can be positioned in order to garner its share of sales. The promotion strategy in its most basic form is the controlled distribution of communication designed to sell your proct or service. In order to accomplish this, the promotion strategy encompasses every marketing tool utilized in the communication effort.
营销策略广泛,不能以一言以蔽之。此文中提到前期的市场分析,以及营销时应该利用各种工具。

⑧ 求市场营销战略(marketing strategy) 的英文定义

The so-called marketing strategy (Marketing Strategy) is the enterprise to identify, analyze and select marketing opportunities in order to achieve the corporate mission and objectives of the management process, that is, how companies with the best marketing opportunities through the adaptation process

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